DID books by and about real people and their lives

Before 1900

1940 – 1960

  • The Three Faces of Eve – the popular press version of Cleckley and Thigpen’s misrepresentation of Chris Costner Sizemore (which was originally an academic article), Chris actually had significant early trauma that she only recalled years later, eventually developed 22 alters and published her full story in 1977
  • The Bird’s Nest (Lizzie) – Shirley Jackson – written by a psychiatrist, a film for this was released in the same year as the movie for The Three Faces of Eve. The five personalities in the book are shown as only three personalities in the movie.
  • Strangers in My Body / The Final Face of Eve – James Poley, “Evelyn Lancaster” (Chris Costner Sizemore) – Chris was prevented from telling her full story by her ex-therapists so ended up fudging parts of this, publishing her full story in 1977.
  • The Chris Costner Sizemore papers – selection of letters, diaries etc, covering 1950s to 1980s – held at Duke University

1960 – 1980

  • Sybil: The Classic True Story of a Woman Possessed by Sixteen Personalities – Flora Rheta Schreiber – A Times bestseller in the 1970s, Schreiber writes about Shirley Ardell Mason and her therapist Cornelia Wilbur – the book led to 2 TV mini-series, a number of follow on books, and a rather bizarre and sensationist book trying to blame DID symptoms on anemia during the 1990s backlash against abuse survivors
  • The Final Face of Eve – Elen Sain Pittillo, Chris Costner Sizemore – Chris’s full story including domestic violence in her first marriage, suicidality, finally getting a good therapist, and life after integration
  • The Five of Me – Henry Hawksworth
  • Paperclip Dolls – Annie McKenna

1980 – 2000

  • Michelle Remembers – Michelle Smith and Lawrence Padzer (her psychiatrist). A later backlash against ritual abuse discloses places considerable blame on this book.
  • Therapist when Rabbit Howls – Truddi Chase and the Troops (her alters) wrote this together, and took her story of incest and abuse public
  • Multiple Personality Disorder from the Inside Out – edited by Cohen and Giller, accounts from many different people living with DID
  • Prism : Andrea’s World – Jonathan Bliss, Eugene Bliss – based on “Andrea Biaggi”, a Silician-American
  • The Lives of Billy Milligan – Daniel Keyes – Milligan sold his story after being sent to a locked psychiatric hospital following his trial for a 3 week crime spree involving multiple rapes and thefts by several of his alters
  • Voices – Trula Michaels Lacalle – by a psychologist
  • Beyond Integration: One Multiple’s Journey – Doris Bryant, Judy Kessler
  • I’m Eve/A Mind of My Own: The Woman Who Was Known as “Eve” Tells the Story of Her Triumph Over Multiple Personality Disorder – Chris Costner Sizemore – her last book
  • Shatter : The True Story of Kathy Roth’s Eight Separate Personalities and Her Struggle to Become Whole – Nancy Hughes Clark
  • Through Divided Minds: Probing the Mysteries of Multiple Personalities – Robert S. Mayer – written by a psychoanalyst
  • Katherine, It’s Time: The Incredible Journey into the World of a Multiple Personality – Kit Castle, Stefan Bechtel
  • Becoming Kate – Theodore J. Jansma
  • Suffer the Child – Judith Spencer – about “Jenny” whose poetry is included
  • 37 to one: living as an integrated multiple – Phoenix (formerly Sandra) J. Hocking – she wrote a self-help book and a book for loved ones before this
  • Abused Beyond Words: The Healing Journey of Reclaiming Our Inner Power and Peace by Speaking the Unspeakable Truth – Moriah S. St. Clair
  • Jennifer and Her Selves – Gerald Schoenewolf – by a novice therapist
  • The Family Inside: Working with the Multiple – Doris Bryant – a self-help book with a study of someone with DID
  • Moira – Martin Obler
  • The Laid daughter : A true story – Helen Bonner
  • Thirteen pieces : life with a multiple – Mary Locke – written by a partner after the end of a relationship
  • The Flock: The Autobiography of a Multiple Personality – Joan Frances Casey
  • Telling without talking : art as a window into the world of multiple personality – Carol Thayer Cox and Barry M. Cohen – art therapists include 180 pieces of art by people with DID
  • Broken Child – Marcia Cameron
  • Silencing the voices: one woman’s experience with multiple personality disorder – Jean Darby Cline
  • First Person Plural – Cameron West, one of the few men with DID to describe incestuous abuse
  • Silencing the voices : one woman’s triumph over multiple personality disorder – Jean Darby Cline and Jeff Darby Cline
  • Diary of a survivor in art and poetry – deJoly LaBrier
  • Rag Doll: A Journey of Healing and Integration – Alayna
  • Nightmare : uncovering the strange 56 personalities of Nancy Lynn Gooch – Nancy Gooch
  • Childhood’s Thief: One Woman’s Journey of Healing from Sexual Abuse – Rose Mary Evans – written by a therapist
  • Becoming One: A Story of Triumph Over Multiple Personality Disorder – Sarah E. Olson
  • Magic Castle: A Mother’s Harrowing True Story of Her Adoptive Son’s Multiple Personalities — and the Triumph of Healing – Carole Smith
  • Sorority of survival : memoirs of a multiple – Katherine A. Newman
  • The Magic Daughter: A Memoir of Living with Multiple Personality Disorder – Jayne Anne Phillips
  • Welcome Home Stranger: An Account of Multiple Personalities – Matthew Daniels, author from New Zealand

2000 – 2020

  • Looking Inside: Life Lessons from a Multiple Personality in Pictures and Words – Judy Castelli – misdiagnosed with schizophrenia for 20 years
  • Body Scripture : A Therapist’s Journal of Recovery from Multiple Personality – Barbara Hope – a therapist with DID
  • Big Marcia H – Lisa Heibner
  • Beyond these walls : The true story of a lost child’s journey to a whole life – Hanna Gabriele
  • I Am More Than One: How Women with Dissociative Identity Disorder Have Found Success in Life and Work – Jane Hyman
  • Carol Rutz – A Nation Betrayed
  • Safe Eyes – A Story of Healing – Deborah Hall Berkley
  • The Shining man with hurt hands – Ellis H. Skolfield
  • From ghetto to glory : a memoir – Monique Douglass-Andrews
  • Unshackled: A Survivor’s Story of Mind Control – Kathleen M. Sullivan
  • Not Otherwise Specified: A Multiple Life in One Body – Leah Peterson (DDNOS) – Leah was a consultant for the TV series The United States of Tara
  • A God Called Father: One Woman’s Recovery from Incest and Multiple Personality Disorder
    – Judith Machree
  • Lina in search of Lina : The history and treatment of a patient with multiple personality disorder – Rolando I. Haddad
  • Secret Weapons: How Two Sisters Were Brainwashed To Kill For Their Country – Cheryl Hersha – mostly about experiences with MK-Ultra and other abuse, with DID resulting
  • A Fractured Mind: My Life with Multiple Personality Disorder – Robert B. Oxnam – read the excerpt 
  • Am I a Good Girl Yet?: Childhood Abuse Had Shattered Her. Could She Ever Be Whole? – Carolyn Bramhall, DID including ritual abuse
  • Fire and Water: A Safe Journey Through Multiple Personality Disorder – Anna Thomas
  • 5010 – The One Who Flew Into the Cuckoo’s Nest by Kathi Stringer
  • Anne’s Multiple World of Personality – Anne Garvey
  • Today I’m Alice: Nine Personalities, One Tortured Mind – Alice Jamieson, describes the British NHS psychiatric system at the time
  • Fractured: Nine Lives To Escape My Own Abuse – Ruth Dee, written under a pseudonym by a former headteacher
  • Hell Minus One – Anne A. Johnson Davis
  • Five Farewells – A Southern Life with Dissociative Identity Disorder – Liz Elliott
  • Switching Time / A Life in Pieces: the Harrowing True Story of a Woman with Multiple Personality Disorder – Richard Baer – psychiatrist writes about treating someone with DID, includes letters and parts she wrote describing integration in detail, also available on audio CD
  • A Shattered Mind – Dauna Cole
  • As if it Didn’t Happen: A memoir of abuse, multiple personalities, and hope – Maggie Claire
  • Coming Present: Living with Multiple Personality Disorder/Dissociative Identity Disorder and How My Faith Helped Heal Me – Caroline Lighthouse
  • Breaking Free: My Life with Dissociative Identity Disorder – Herschel Walker – by an African American athlete
  • All Of Me: My incredible true story of how I learned to live with the many personalities sharing my body – Kim Noble
  • The Sum of My Parts: A Survivor’s Story of Dissociative Identity Disorder – Olga R. Trujillo – also available in Spanish
  • Sybil in her own words: The Untold Story of Shirley Mason, Her Multiple Personalities and Paintings – Patrick Suraci – by her friend (a former psychiatrist), including some of Shirley Mason’s notebooks, art and photos from her cousin – interview with Suraci  
  • After Sybil… From the Letters of Shirley Mason – Nancy Preston writes about her friend “Sybil” – see Sybil (the original)  
  • Mother Had a Secret – Tiffany Fletcher – writing about her mother with DID and the impact on her life
  • Us – Matthew Mckay – writing about someone else
  • I Am WE: My Life with Multiple Personalities – Christine Pattillo
  • We Are Annora – P. S. Marrow
  • In Out of Ice/Glass: Living With Dissociative Identity Disorder and Chemical Dependency – Sarah Smith
  • Which One Am I?, Multiple Personalities and Deep Southern Secrets – Thomas S. Smith, James Darrell Williams – jointly written by a loved one and someone with DID
  • Twenty-two Faces – Judy Byington – about Jenny Hill
  • The Rape of Eve – Colin Ross – a psychiatrist describes the manipulation of Chris Costner Sizemore by her previous psychiatrist, Chris contributed to this book before she passed away
  • Fractured Mind: The Healing of a Person with Dissociative Identity Disorder – Debra Bruch

2020 – present

  • Coming soon

Photo of some books with the words Dissociative Identity Disorder true stories

DID in history: oldest accounts of multiple personality

Before 1900

Most written accounts are fairly short, and many attribute behaviors or alter personalities to a form of religious possession, or link mental illness with belief in demons.
However some longer accounts were published by “physicians” and some historians found other accounts.

Many ordinary people couldn’t read and books were expensive rather than today’s mass-produced paperbacks and ebooks about DID.

An incomplete list of some of the historical cases of dissociative identity disorder…

  • 1580s: Jeanne Fery: A sixteenth-century case of dissociative identity disorder – van der Hart, Lierens and Goodwin (1997)


  • 1790 – 1952: Multiple personality before “Eve” – Adam Crabtree (1993), a short summary of the psychology of the times and recognition of DID
  • 1790: a woman from Stuttgart described by Eberhard Gmelin speaks different languages depending on which personality is in control at the time


  • 1802: Three cases described by Dwight who publishes them in 1818, with one likely to be multiple personality disorder and the others likely to be dissociative amnesia or fugue (Hacking, 1991), Dwight describes a female with “two souls, each occasionally dormant and occasionally active, and utterly ignorant of what the other was doing”
  • 1815-1875 Double consciousness in Britain 1815-1875 described by skeptical historian Ian Hacking (1991)
  • 1816: Mary Reynolds is described by Mitchill, and later by M. Kenny (1986)
  • 1823: Dewar published the first case of a teenager with DID, a 16 year-old Scottish girl
  • 1823 to early 1900s – Adolescent MPD in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries – Elizabeth Bowman (1990)
  • 1834: “Estelle” is treated by Charles Antoine Despine (also described by Catherine Fine, 1988)


  • 1845: Mayo describes an 18 year-old English girl with two personalities, “misconduct in her relatives ” is mentioned
  • 1846: Ward refers to other boys with “double consciousness” whose “nervous system has been weakened by excess, terror or cerebral excitement” which Hacking believes suggests trauma
  • 1860: Mary Reynolds is described by Plumber


  • 1876: “Félida X” is described by Eugène Azam as “double personality” or ”doublement de la vie
  • 1876: “double consciousness” is now referred to as “double personality” according to Hacking (1991)
  • 1887: Barret describes a 17 year-old English boy with two personalities of different ages , with different handwriting. Barret attributes the symptoms with the stress of applying for a scholarship to Cambridge University – his symptoms delay his admission to Cambridge.
  • 1880s: Louis Vivé/Vivet in France – originally described by Bourru and Burot in 1885, 1886, 1887, and in Variatons de la personnalité (1888/95); Camuset in 1882; Mabille and Ramadier in 1886; and Voisin in 1885 and 1887.
    The 19th century DID case of Louis Vivet: New Findings and Re-evaluation (1995/1997) – Henri Faure, John Kersten, Dinet Koopman and Onno van der Hart
  • 1880s: V.L. and his six personalities are treated by Bourru and Burot in France, as described by Sidis and Goodhart in 1904.
  • 1887: Pierre Janet describes “dissociation” as demonstrates that some people have multiple “psychic centers” that he describes as multiple “personalities”, rather than dual or alternating states
  • 1858: Ansel Bourne – Wonderful Works of God: A Narrative of the Wonderful Facts in the Case of Ansel Bourne of Westerly, Rhode Island, Who, In The Midst of Opposition to the Christian Religion Was Suddenly Struck Blind, Dumb, and Deaf, and After Eighteen Days Was Suddenly and Completely Restored In the Presence of Hundreds of Persons, in the Christian Chapel At Westerly, on the 15th of November, 1857. Bourne also describes his father’s death when he was seven, severe poverty following the death, and being forced from school into work at thirteen due to poverty
  • 1881: Ansel Bourne is described as having dissociative fugue episodes and an “alternate personality”.
  • 1894: Peter Scott is described by Dana
  • 1894: Mollie Fancher is described by Abram H. Dailey in Molly Fancher: Brooklyn Enigma; An Authentic Statement of Facts in the Life of Mary J. Fancher, 1894. She is described in The Fasting Girl: A True Victorian Medical Mystery – Michelle Stacey – A much newer and confusing account of the story of Fancher including hysteria/hysterical paralysis and the fame surrounding people claiming to not need to eat in Victorian times.
  • 1895: Mary Barnes Account published in 1903 as A case of double consciousness by Albert Wilson, England, UK. Describes a child whose symptoms are first noticed at age 12 and a half, she has more than a dozen identities, five of which are not clearly defined. It begins after a case of the flu followed by meningitis; she was seriously ill for 6 weeks and hallucinating at times. Her different personalities have amnesia and can’t recognize people she knows. At least seemed to be a toddler and asks “What dat?” for names of things. One identity became dominate at age 17.
  • 1884: Charles L. Dana publishes The study of a case of amnesia or ‘double consciousness’ about a 24 year-old man with no “hysteria, epilepsy, or organic disease”.
  • 1899: Theodore Hyslop describes different types of “double consciousness”

1900 – 1919

  • 1900: From India to Planet Mars by Théodore Flournoy describes Catherine-Elise Muller under the name “Hélène Smith” as a spiritualist with multiple personalities. Flournoy, a psychology professor, realizes that the “martian” language used by one of them is based on French.
  • 1900: Ottolenghi, an Italian , refers to ”sdoppiamenti el le transformazioni della personalitá”
  • 1901: Sally Beauchamp (Clara Norton Fowler) is described by Morton Prince as having multiple personalities
  • 1903-1904: Albert Wilson publishes accounts of 12 1/2-year-old “Mary Barnes” in A case of double consciousness, and A case of multiple personality, after treating her from 1895. By this time, she is aged 21 but mentally aged only a 16 year-old.
  • 1904: “Alma Z“, from 1894, is described by Boris Sidis and Simon P. Goodhart (also known as S. Philip Goodhart) in Multiple Personality: An Experimental Investigation into the Nature of Human Individuallty. as having three personalities. Alma Z’s personalities are referred to as No. 1, Twoey and The Boy, and have some co-consciousness. They describe the “dissociated personalities” as “well-defined”.
  • V.L., who was cared for in the late 1880s by Bourru and Burot, is also described by Sidis and Goodhart who ever to him as a “manifold personality”. V.L. is a 17 year-old boy with an unknown father, unmarried and promiscuous mother, who is wandering and begging on the streets from a very young age. V.L. becomes a thief and is sent to a reformatory as a child, develops conversion disorder with paralysis after a fright with a snake, and is then looked after in an asylum (a general term meaning place of rest). His is described as having 6 “states”, each with different memories, skills and a distinct personality.
  • 1904: Thomas Carson Hanna is described in the New York Times as an “Instance of Multiple Personality” being treated in New York by Boris Sidis, and Sidis’ book is referred to be the journalist. Hanna is described as developing a second personality after an accident with a head injury, and then switching between the two until they eventually merge.
  • 1904: Reverend Thomas Carson Hanna is described by Boris Sidis as developing a second personality after a head injury, they eventually merge
  • 1905: Prince publishes the book ”The Dissociation of a Personality’‘ about “Miss Beauchamp” describing three personalities
  • 1906: Burnett describes a 16 year-old American boy who has had problems since early childhood. He He attributes the different personalities to epilepsy.
  • 1906: Gordon reports a 19 year-old American with two personalities and a third state who struggle over control of the body. Gordon describes the boys “delusion belief” about having two ego states and calls it “epileptic psychosis”. Problems continue for at least 9 years despite epilepsy medication.
  • 1907: A young girl from London is reported to the British Psychical Research Society as having ten distinct personalities, and is mentioned in the New York Times in an article called ”A Girl’s 10 Minds” and ”A case of hysteria”. The personalities become apparent after she nearly dies from a severe case of flu, after ten years of treatment they fuse together, at age 22. She is treated by Dr Albert Wilson has presented the case to a skeptical Medico-Psychological Association, who come to believe it is genuine.
  • 1909: My life as a dissociated personality by B.C.A. – Morton Prince persuaded Clara Norton Fowler and her alters to write this
  • 1909: Charles van Osten is reported as having multiple personalities, with symptoms appearing after a head injury. Van Osten has gone missing from hospital. The New York Times quotes Prof. Diefendorf as saying that Van Osten was distressed by the Slocum disaster, and may be looking for his wife and child. ”HYPNOTIZED, FINDS HOMES.: Van Osten, Without Hesitation, Takes Doctor to New York Addresses. Special to The New York Times” (20 May 1909).
  • 1916: After around 12 years of treatment Doris Fischer‘s five personalities are described by Walter F. Prince and Theodore Hyslop (1915), Hyslop (1917), and Walter F. Prince (1923). Together they publish over 2,000 pages about her symptoms and treatment. Doris links her violent, alcoholic father to developing different personalities and describes her mother encouraging her to dissociate, with problems beginning at age three and a half, after an assault by her father. The case is reported in the press.
  • 1919, 1920: Grace Oliver and her alter personality “Spanish Maria” are described in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.


These years are the aftermath of World War I.

  • 1926: Bernice R. is described by Henry Herbert Goddard in “Two Souls in One Body?”; Bernice describes incest which Goddard regards as a hallucination.
  • 1926, 1927: A 19 year-old American woman “Norma” is described by Goddard with a four-year-old alter personality “Polly” and severe conversion disorder causing episodes of paralysis and mutism. Her history includes the deaths of her twin sister and three other siblings before age 11, paternal incest at age 14, the separation from her surviving siblings and emotional abuse by relatives, and the death of both parents by age 17. Goddard calls the incest a transference hallucination and believes her traumatic history has resulted in a daydream-like escape. The two personalities gradually merge.
  • 1933: John Charles Poultney is described in Persons One and Three: A Study of Multiple Personalities – Shepherd Ivory Franz, Poultney gets a severe head injury during World War I and starts switching back and forth between two personalities

1940 onwards

These years involve World War II, with further understanding of trauma and dissociative amnesia, the introduction of the American DSM psychiatric manual and the World Health Organization equivalent, and the impact of Vietnam war veterans leading to the creation of PTSD as a separate diagnosis.

All years

  • Multiple personality and dissociation, 1791-1990 : a complete bibliography – Philip M. Coons, George B. Greaves and Carole Goettman


Picture of a pile of old books with Dissociative Identity Disorder historical cases on the right

Dissociative and Dissociative Identity Disorder humor

May trigger.

I'm not immature... I just have more than one inner child!

If I could get a grip on reality, I’d strangle it —Unknown

Multiple Personality Disorder and Cats… really?

We know that cats can get feline leukemia and feline aids. Cats are subject to mood disorders (e.g., distemper) and adjustment disorders (e.g., peeing on owner’s new lover’s discarded clothing).

Continue reading… Cats with Multiple Personality Disorder

Having DID isn’t all bad…

Having Dissociative Identity Disorder isn't all bad... humor

Having DID isn’t all badhttps://shadowlight8.wordpress.com/2010/02/01/did-is-real-it-can-be-hell-but-it-also-can-be-fun/

Multiple Personality Disorder tax return…

New Tax Form MPD-1040

Certain deductions are available for those who qualify as multiple personalities in the current tax year…

Read more…

Multiple Personality jokes – T-shirts & memes

Source: http://www.coolnsmart.com/tshirt_quotes/

DID T-shirt - if I were making this up it would be a whole lot more interesting

There are six Is in Dissociative Identity Disorder T-shirt

My inner teenager got me grounded

Related Links

Ritual Abuse/Mind Control survivors – Internal Keys to Safety by Alison Miller

Trigger warning
A minority of people with Dissociative Identity Disorder or Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (DDNOS) have experienced ritual abuse (also known as trauma-based mind control). The combination of both creates additional struggles in healing because typically alter personalities will have been created to actively disrupt and prevent healing.
Fighting against these alter personalities tends to lead to more problems and prevents healing – but their roles and motives can be understood in a positive way, and survivors can learn to negotiate with and educate these parts/alters in order to heal together. Often these parts/alters will have been lied to and tricked by abusers, and may have been traumatized by them as well. If they discover this they may choose to work towards – rather than against – healing.
Psychotherapist Alison Miller recognizes two areas of problems for survivors of RA/MC:

  • Emotional instability and psychiatric symptoms
  • Inability to keep physically safe from the perpetrator group

She states both are related to programming – which is “the training of child insiders (alter personalities) to do ‘jobs’ assigned by the perpetrators.”

Trigger Warning yellow triangle

Download Internal Keys to Safety by Alison Miller (survivorship.org) to learn more – could be very triggering. 

Survivors may want to review this with your therapist or support person before reading it. This presentation is not meant as therapy or treatment.

Related Links

Books on Ritual Abuse and Mind Control by the Sidran Institute

Becoming Yourself: Overcoming Mind Control and Ritual Abuse by Alison Miller (book cover) 

Dissociative Identity Disorder: Skepticsm decreases with information and education about Dissociative Disorders 

Many studies have shown the majority of both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists view the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder) as valid. As understanding of Dissociative Disorders increases world-wide, skepticism decreases.

Warwick Middleton: Australian psychiatrist


Now when the [trauma and dissociation] unit first started, there were psychiatrists in the hospital that was established who had the sort of reactions that were talked about here this morning, with raised eyebrows and shaking of heads, like borderline hell had just moved in. In fact, it’s sort of interesting that by not attacking, by not being overly defensive, by being warm, inviting, encouraging dialogue, giving appropriate information, research material, articles, books, et cetera, if they were requested, but certainly never attacking anyone for being a disbeliever or having a different paradigm, it’s very interesting over the years just how many of those psychiatrists that were openly incredulous and dismissive, have become stalwart admittants to the unit.  In fact, I can remember one psychiatrist … this is going back more than a decade and a half, who rang me, at that stage he was a senior registrar … it says something about the ambivalence about this area, he rang me saying he doesn’t believe that DID exists, but nevertheless he has a patient with it that he’s like to refer.

Research (Newest articles first)

Leonard, D., Brann, S., & Tiller, J. (2005). Dissociative disorders: pathways to diagnosis, clinician attitudes and their impact. Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, 39(10), 940-946.
Results: Of the 250 clinicians, 21% reported experience with more than six cases on average of any one of the dissociative disorders, 38% with less than six, 42% with none; 55% regarded them as valid diagnoses, 35% dubiously valid and 10% invalid. Of the 55 patients, 76% reported delays in diagnosis (57%, ❤ years and 25%, <10 years) with adverse consequences in 64%; 80% had experienced sceptical or antagonistic attitudes from clinicians, rated as destructive by 48%. They were disabled (60% rated as <50% impaired) and were heavy consumers of health services (48% hospitalized, 68% <5 times). There was considerable comorbidity including moderate or severe depression (96%), self-harm (68%), suicide attempts (69%), panic disorder (53%), eating disorders (75%), substance abuse (25%), poor physical health (44%), major interpersonal (70%) and sexual problems (90%). Patients rated individual psychotherapy as the most helpful treatment (90%) but medications, such as antidepressants, were also valued (60%). Conclusions: Although over half of the responding Australian clinicians thought that dissociative disorders were valid, the rest were dubious about their validity with 10% believing them to be invalid. Only 21% had considerable experience with the disorders. These findings may relate to some of the difficulties perceived by patients, which included delays in diagnosis, suboptimal treatment and negative experiences with clinicians. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2005.01700.x

Somer, E. (2000). Israeli mental health professionals’ attitudes towards dissociative disorders, reported incidence and alternative diagnoses considered. Journal of trauma & dissociation, 1(1), 21-44.
Results: Years  in clinical  practice  (including postgraduate  and registrar  training)  did not  differ  between psychologists  (mean =  16.1 years, SD  =  9.68)  and psychiatrists  (mean =  18.8 years, SD  =  10.05). Overall, there  was  a  greater  tendency to believe  in the  existence  of  the  condition with 48 (55.8%) respondents  replying “Yes,”  and 32 (37.2%)  replying “No”  to the  reality of  DID. Five  (5.8%) participants  replied “unsure,”  and one  did not  respond to this  item. Excluding the  unsure responses  and one  missing value, a  chi-square  analysis  between psychologists  and psychiatrists for  this  item  showed a  significant  relationship between profession and belief  (chi-square  =  13.00, p  <  .001). Psychologists  showed a  greater  tendency to believe  in the  existence  of  DID  (23 yes, 3 no), while  the  slight  majority of  psychiatrists  did not  believe  in the  clinical  reality of  DID  (25 yes, 29 no).

Abstract Clinical diagnoses of dissociative disorders (DDs), including Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), are controversial because there are mental health professionals in North America and elsewhere who are skeptical about whether these psychiatric disorders actually exist. This paper explores the attitudes of mental health professionals in Israel toward DDs and DID through a survey of 211 practicing clinicians (return rate of 39.5%). Of the sample, 95.5% scored at or above the point on a 5-point Likert scale measuring belief in the validity of DDs (m = 4.17, SD = 0.78); 84.5% declared at least a moderate belief in the validity of DID (M = 3.5, S.D. = 0.97). The average Israeli clinician surveyed had made 4.8 career-long DD diagnoses (S.D. = 18.06) and carried an average of 1.05 DD patients in his/her caseload (S.D. = 2.86). DID had a career-long diagnosis frequency of 0.14 patients per clinician (S.D. = 0.59) and was currently seen at a frequency of 0.03 cases per clinician (S.D. = 0.20). The five most frequently considered alternative diagnoses to DID in Israel were Borderline Personality Disorder (24%), Psychotic Disorder/Schizophrenia (23%), PTSD/Anxiety Disorder (10%), Malingering (8%) and Depressive Disorder (7%). The findings suggest that attitudes of Israeli clinicians are similar to those of North American clinicians despite the geographical and cultural differences between them. Full paper – https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Eli_Somer/publication/232909347_Israeli_Mental_Health_Professionals’_Attitudes_Towards_Dissociative_Disorders_Reported_Incidence_and_Alternative_Diagnoses_Considered/links/02e7e51cef1213f1df000000.pdf

Cormier, J. F., & Thelen, M. H. (1998). Professional skepticism of multiple personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29(2), 163.
 If you saw a patient who appeared to have more than one personality, what diagnosis would you make? And how would you vary your clinical approach? Data from 425 respondents indicated that the majority of psychologists believed multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be a valid but rare clinical diagnosis. Respondents cited extreme child abuse as the foremost cause of MPD. Approximately one-half of all respondents believed that they had encountered a client with MPD, whereas less than one-third believed that they had encountered a client who feigned MPD. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pro/29/2/163/
Professional attitudes to Dissociative Identity Disorder (MPD) in Britain: More on treating DID where it doesn’t exist.  Paper presented at the 4th conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation-UK branch. J Mcintee. 1998. and

Davis, J.D. & Davis, M.L. (1997). The prevalence of dissociative disorders within the mental health services of a British urban district.Paper presented at the Fourth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation. Chester, UK, April 19-11.

Summarized by Somer, E. (2000) A recent survey conducted in Britain sought to test the prevailing view in the United Kingdom academic press that DID either did not exist or was fashionably over-diagnosed by gullible practitioners, influenced by ill-advised North American colleagues. The survey was designed to examine British psychologists’ and psychiatrists’ attitudes towards the identification and treatment of dissociative disorders (McIntee, 1998). Dissociative disorders had been encountered by 66% of respondents, of whom 14% attributed dissociation to iatrogenesis. The 965 British mental health professionals responding to the survey reported having seen a total of 3225 clients with DDs, 526 clients diagnosed as DID, and 596 clients with Dissociative Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified. The estimated life prevalence rates for a British research sample reported a year earlier were 15.2% for DDs in general and 5.7% for DID specifically, with clinical profiles resembling those described in the North American literature (Davis & Davis, 1997).
Hayes, J. A., & Mitchell, J. C. (1994). Mental health professionals’ skepticism about multiple personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25(4), 410.
Three studies were conducted to investigate the nature of mental health professionals’ skepticism regarding multiple personality disorder (MPD). An initial pilot study was conducted to develop a psychometrically sound survey instrument. In Study 2, the results of a national survey of 207 mental health professionals supported the hypothesis that skepticism and knowledge about MPD are inversely related, r = –.33, p < .01, although the strength of this relationship varied among professions. Moderate to extreme skepticism was expressed by 24% of the sample. Results from Study 3 supported the hypotheses that MPD is diagnosed with less accuracy than is schizophrenia and that misdiagnosis of MPD is predicted by skepticism about MPD. Findings are related to literature pertaining to mental health professionals’ skepticism about MPD and consequential effects on treatment. http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pro/25/4/410/

Dunn, G. E., Paolo, A. M., Ryan, J. J., & Van Fleet, J. N. (1994). Belief in the existence of multiple personality disorder among psychologists and psychiatrists. Journal of clinical psychology.
Surveyed the attitudes of 664 psychologists and 456 psychiatrists with regard to the existence of dissociative and multiple personality disorders (MPDs). 97.5% of the Ss indicated that they believed in dissociative disorders, while 80% reported a belief in MPD. 12.3% did not believe in MPD, and 7.7% were undecided. Belief in MPD was related significantly to profession, age, and years of experience. Young Ss with less professional experience believed more in MPD than did older Ss. Ss who had worked with patients with MPD would tend to believe in the entity. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1995-21368-001

Barton, C. (1994). Backstage in psychiatry: The multiple personality disorder controversy.
Arguments about the existence of multiple personality disorder (MPD) are creating a professional dispute. Skepticism is manifested in literary as well as behavioral forms. The most widely cited recent skeptical paper is that of H. Merskey (see record 1992-31500-001). Merskey uses arguments that are sociological in nature but with little attention to empirical evidence. Merskey’s skepticism about MPD differs from skepticism in natural science. Proponents’ research is ignored rather than being subjected to critical examination and disproof through attempted replication. His skepticism appears largely based on challenges to the integrity of MPD patients and questions about the competence of therapists. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1995-29438-001 Mersky’s response – and Barton’s response to it

Dell, P. F. (1988). Professional skepticism about multiple personality. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 176(9), 528-531.
Therapists who have treated patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) were surveyed about professional skepticism regarding the existence of MPD. Of these therapists, 78% reported that they had encountered intense skepticism from fellow professionals. Much of this skepticism appears to be explainable in terms of a) the lengthy decline of psychiatry’s interest in dissociation, b) under appreciation of the prevalence of individuals with dissociative ability, and c) misconceptions about the natural clinical presentation of patients with MPD. These factors, however, could not explain the behavior of those skeptics who deliberately interfered with the clinical care of patients and who engaged in repeated acts of harassment against the patient and/or therapist. Half of the survey respondents reported that they had encountered these latter forms of extreme skepticism. http://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Abstract/1988/09000/Professional_Skepticism_about_Multiple.2.aspx